The laboratory clean room is defined as a room in which controls the presence of sub-micron particles to control the environment of the room. Most of the industries require clean room like electronic, semiconductor, high-tech, pharmaceutical, medical, and aerospace etc. Many laboratory design and construction or products such as circuit board are too smaller that they can easily be contaminated.
Pharmaceutical companies need a clean, safe and healthy environment to make medicines. The biggest cause of contamination in a clean room is personal. The cleanroom construction needs close coordination between all departments and design team. Let’s understand the methods to make a clean room.
There are two types of laboratory cleanroom:
- Turbulently Ventilated Cleanroom – Such room uses air diffusers in the ceiling to produce clean filtered air. This filtered air then mixes with the room air. Air extracts at the bottom of the wall remove the airborne contamination by people and machinery.
- Unidirectional Flow Cleanroom – Such rooms are equipped with the high-efficiency air filters across an entire ceiling or the wall. It helps to remove the airborne contamination from the room.
To control contamination high-efficiency air filters are installed in cleanrooms. They can filter the tiny particle of 0.3 microns with a 99.97% minimum particle collective efficiency.
Clean rooms are designed to maintain laminar air flow. It is the movement of air with uniform velocity along parallel flow lines. The restriction to airflow results in restricted turbulence. Turbulence creates particle movement.
Contamination control is measured by particle count, air flow and velocity, humidity, temperature and surface cleanliness. Specific instruments are used to measure these factors.
It is also known as electrostatic discharge. An electrical charge is created when two surfaces rub each other. Moving air create a charge. A turbo-electric charge is created when people touch surfaces or walk across the floor. ESD protective material is used with extreme care to avoid any damage from ESD. The cleanroom managers work with their personnel to trace such conditions and to prevent them.
Temperature and Humidity
Both factors are important in design and functioning of a cleanroom. Temperature control is must to provide an environment suitable for material and instruments. Humidity should be control to prevent corrosion, stop work surface condensation and minimize static electricity. These two factors are important to provide an optimum work environment for laboratory staff and safety of materials and types of machinery.
In order to prevent infiltration by wind, cleanrooms should be maintained at static pressures which are higher than atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the air pressure should be set up in such a way which enable air to move from clean to the less-clean area. The only exception is when government agencies need the room to be at a negative pressure when dealing with some hazardous material.
I hope with the help of above mention tips you can get the sufficient information about the laboratory design and construction, working and importance of cleanroom in labs.